genetic history of greece

History of Greece || From Ancient to Modern

The first communities on the west coast of the Aegean Sea lived in caves and shelters located at suitable points in today’s Greece. B.C. Thanks to the migrations from Anatolia in the 6,000s, the region started the Neolithic Period. The first Neolithic communities emerged in the Cyclades and Thessaly plains.

Activities such as agriculture, animal husbandry and pottery moved to the west of the Aegean via the islands through Anatolia. While Greece was living its Neolithic period, around BC. In the 3000s, a new wave of immigration came from Anatolia. These migrations caused Greece to enter the Bronze Age.

The Minoan civilization, which emerged especially on the island of Crete, is considered to be the first developed civilization in Europe. Cretans, who were building many palaces and cities, traded in the Mediterranean basin, established a navy and interacted with the cultures of the region. B.C.

alternate history of Greece In English

Around 2000, an Indo-European and warrior community entered Greece from the north. B.C. This warrior community, who founded the “Mycenaean Civilization” towards the 1600s, were the first Greeks. Calling themselves “Akas”, this community soon spread to the Aegean basin.

Achaeans, who are heavily influenced by the Cycladic and especially Minoan culture; They adopted the culture of Cretans in many areas from writing to architecture, from urbanism to agricultural methods. B.C. Due to the endangerment of the trade routes in the 1200s, the Mycenaeans turned their eyes to the Black Sea. However, the city of Troy, which dominates the straits opening to the Black Sea,

genetic history of Greece In English

was an obstacle to the Mycenaean. The Mycenaean cities, which came together, took advantage of the weak state of the Hittite State and attacked Troy. However, before the Mycenaean could see the benefits of the region they conquered, they were drawn into the confusion that took place throughout Asia Minor, called Sea Peoples Migration. B.C. Dorians during the great migrations in the 12th century;

They ended the Mycenaean Civilization, capturing many parts of Greece. Those who escaped came to Western Anatolia and established the Ionian city-states between Smyrna and Milas. Aeolians from Thrace and the northern part of Greece, on the other hand,

periods of Greek history

were under the influence of Ion and established cities in the region from Smyrna to Troy. While these communities in Western Anatolia interacted and developed with the Front Asian civilizations The backward Doric society in Greece, on the other hand, became the representative of the Dark Age that will continue for 4 centuries.

Dorians, which later spread to the islands; They communicated with Ions and Aios and formed the basis of Ancient Greek civilization. Also during this period, Greek Gods and Greek religion emerged. As a result of the increase in population in 800 BC and commercial and cultural relations with other civilizations, the so-called Archaic period was entered. The Greeks, who made radical changes in military and administrative terms,

established many large and small colonies between 750-550 BC. Colonization movement, the existence of the mighty Persian Empire rising in the east, In the Western Mediterranean, as a result of the Phoenicians who cooperated with the Etruscans prevented the Greeks, BC. He slowed down to 550 and stopped. B.C. In the battle that broke out with the attack of the Persians on Greek cities in 480,

the city-states united and formed the Hellenic union. The Greeks won the war between the Union and the Persians, and the Persian threat was removed. At this point, Sparta, who did not want to continue the war, and Athens, which opposed the “Peloponnese Union”, He founded the Attik-Delos Sea Union in 477 BC. This union, which was expanding and winning victories, evolved from a certain point into the “Athenian empire”. Thus, Athens became one of the most powerful cities in the Greek world.

But Athens’ expansion ran counter to the interests of other cities. This situation, after a while, led to the so-called “Peloponnesian Wars”, a series of wars that engulfed all of Greece. B.C. This bloody war, which started in 431, ended with the rule of Sparta and its supporters. However, as both sides that fought lost a lot of power, the main profits were the Persians. These years of war have caused Greek cities to exhaust their power.

It caused economic depressions and great human losses throughout the cities. Unable to re-unite against the Macedonian kingdom from the north, working Greek cities failed to do so and Macedonian King II. It was not possible to prevent Philip from winning a decisive victory against the Greek armies in 338 BC. Thus, the political independence of the Greek city-states came to an end. Alexander the Great took action against the Persians, taking Macedonia and Greece as a base. He captured Anatolia, Egypt and Persia;

It advanced into Asia; Thus, while the classical Greek culture was spreading, the cultural elements of the conquered places were also transferred to Greece. As a result of this interaction, “Hellenistic Culture” was formed. After Alexander, the Macedonian Empire fell apart. However, the city-states in Greece continued to remain under Macedonian rule. Then Roman domination began in the region.

Macedonia was a province of Rome in 148 BC. During the period when Christianity spread rapidly in the Roman Empire, there were also conversions to Christianity in Greece. In 381, Emperor Theodosios proclaimed Christianity the official religion of the empire and banned all other polytheistic religions,

which accelerated this process. When Rome was divided, the region that fell to Eastern Rome’s share was pale next to the towering Constantinople. During the reign of Emperor Justinian’s, philosophy schools were closed and Athens gradually turned into a provincial town. From the 7th century onwards,

the Slavic tribes began to descend to the Greek land. The settlement of the Slavs in the Peloponnese and the islands was so intense that, according to some historians, today’s Greeks have no relation with the Ancient Greeks. With the invasion of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204,

the Peloponnese peninsula, an important part of Greece, came under Latin rule, Crete was also sold to the Venetians. In addition, many ports were captured by the Venetians. The Serbian King Stefan Dushan, who started the war against Byzantium from 1334, After capturing Thessaly and Epirus,

he declared himself the tsar and ruler of the Serbs and Greeks in 1345. The rapid advance of the Ottomans in the Balkans since the 1360s, It heralded a new era, starting with the Macedonian side, including Greece. By 1460, the Turks connected many places, including the Peloponnese.

With the completion of the Conquest of the Morea in the early 16th century and the conquest of Crete in 1669, all Greek settlements were now united under the Ottoman rule. The Greek society, which has been living under Turkish rule and in interaction with the Turks for centuries, both influenced and was influenced by Turkish culture in many ways.

This long period of calm began to deteriorate from the end of the 18th century. The rebellion of Ali Pasha of Tepedelen, one of the lords of the region, weakened the Ottoman power in Morea and in some places. The nationalist and revolutionary ideas of the French Revolution, which started at the time of this loss of power, affected the Greeks as well as the Ottoman society. When the long-standing Russian provocations were added,

the Greeks revolted against the Ottoman rule in 1821. Although the Ottomans tried hard to suppress the rebellion and not to lose the region for a long time, the Greeks became independent in the Peloponnese with the support of states such as Russia, Britain and France.

The Greek kingdom could not stabilize due to internal strife but thanks to the rising Filhelenist current in Europe, he continued his life by leaning his back on Europe. The Greek Kingdom, which took land from the Ottoman period, Although he suffered a heavy defeat in the Ottoman Greek War of 1897,

he got what he wanted thanks to his European supporters. As a result of the Balkan Wars that broke out in 1912, the Greek Kingdom; It also took Epirus, Macedonia and many Aegean islands. Greece, which gained many advantages after the First World War due to its presence with the Allied Powers, When the Turks occupied the Western Anatolian lands,

the War of Independence started. Greeks, who occupied many places almost to Ankara, He was expelled from Anatolia and Eastern Thrace as a result of the struggle between 1919-1922 by the Turkish forces under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Italy attacked Greece in 1940 when World War II broke out; the war lasted until April 1941. Germany came to the aid of Italy and occupied Greece.

After Germany’s withdrawal in 1944, a civil war broke out in the country. While the civil war was going on, in 1947 Italy ceded 12 of the islands that it occupied to Greece. The civil war ended with the intervention of the USA. The Greeks were taken to Nato in 1952 and took their place in the Western bloc. After Britain’s withdrawal from Cyprus, Greece set its eyes here.

No candidate Turkey in the region to the detriment of the Greek island they want to do on the brink of war with Turkey. Turkey in 1975, removing the island of Cyprus has made to protect the rights of the Turks in the region. Greece, which is constantly experiencing crises and looking for new crises, Macedonia neighbors in the 1990s, came several times to the brink of war with Albania and Turkey.

History of Greece

Greeks who have been trying to get along with their neighbors since the end of the 90’s, Although Turkey has not taken many steps to reduce tensions and resolve problems. In 2010, the Greeks this time faced a major economic crisis. Arriving at the sinking point, Greece asked for help from European countries.

Greece, which managed to stand thanks to the great support of Germany, Today, he is about to get into trouble because of his aggressive attitude in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean….

Italian Wars 10/10 – The 15th Century – Prelude

working to expand its interests in the Aegean Sea against Turkey in the eastern Mediterranean and international law and in defiance of the Greek conducting activities against Turkey What to do and in turn we will see how Turkey would react in the coming days.

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